Nor are these problems restricted to the developing
world, as can been seen from the list below
of countries where water is a critical issue:
- In USA, there are over 700 failures per day in the ageing US water system. A Senate committee found that corrosion in the predominantly iron water and sewage system is the prime cause, and was costing the US taxpayer US$36 billion per year.
- In Europe, Italy has a water leakage rate of 42% which is equivalent to 4 billion cubic metres of water, costing the water industry over US$6 billion each year to process and transport.
- In the Middle East, Jordan, Yemen, Syria and Egypt face serious water shortages, which will restrict future agricultural production and already affect the lives of many farmers.
Clearly, the “Cost of No Action” is high and with
increasing population and reducing rainfall due
to climate change, this cost will rise in the future and will have a damaging effect on the countries’
industrial and commercial wealth, the environment
and general welfare of its citizens. Therefore, it is
crucial that action is taken now to renovate and
maintain existing systems and develop new networks
where none exist. In these circumstances,
the quality and durability of the replacement systems
is critical, and recent innovations in materials
and installation technology should be employed
to optimise the cost efficiency of the operation.
In order to analyse the needs of the infrastructure
and to calculate the costs of replacement, a model
has been developed, based upon a Cost-Benefit
Analysis approach that has previously been applied
to industrial and economic systems as well
as to plant construction projects.